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- a U.S. citizen with a passport can stay in the Schengen region (most, but not all, of the European Union countries plus a few more) for no more than 90 days out of 180 days. All days in any Schengen country count towards the 90 day limit. For stays longer than 90 days, a visa is required. I obtained a residency visa for Spain before departing the U.S.
- a separate visa is required to visit Russia. I obtained a Russia tourist visa before departing the U.S.